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Rob WilliamsAsk ROB, our expert LNAT critical reasoning test designer, your questions by emailing passedpapers@gmail.com

An Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society, Rob Williams is a Chartered Psychologist with over 25 years of experience working and designing tests.

Critical reasoning test design specialists

We are aptitude test specialists for all the common adult and child aptitude tests. Do contact us if you have any aptitude test questions which can’t be answered here.

Who are our aptitide test practice aimed at?

  • Each aptitude test practice book is packed with examples of every kind of aptitude test.
  • The Passing Aptitude Tests series take you through everything you need to pass with flying colours.
  • Are you chasing a job that you really want, but need to take a verbal reasoning test to get it?
  • With the help of this book, you’ll sharpen your skills and quickly become confident in your ability to pass. To feel practiced, prepared and confident. To get you ready to take on any type of test. Plus, helping aptitude test takers to develop aptitude test taking strategy to maximise their aptitude test performance.

Passing aptitude Tests book series Part 1

Our Verbal Reasoning practice test book chapters

  • Firstly, Getting started
  • Secondly, Practice makes perfect
  • Thirdly, Mastering reading comprehension
  • Fourthly, Sharpen your critical reasoning skills
  • Fifthly, Succeed on test day

Part 2 – Time to practice

  • Firstly, Warm up tests
  • Secondly, Reading comprehension tests
  • Thirdly, Verbal reasoning tests
  • Fourthly, Critical reasoning tests

Our Numerical Reasoning practice test book chapters

Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests PART I

  • Firstly, Getting started.
  • Secondly, Practice makes perfect.
  • Thirdly, Brush up your maths skills.
  • Fourthly, Succeed on test day.

PART II Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests

  • Firstly, Basic numerical reasoning tests.
  • Secondly, Numerical comprehension tests
  • Thirdly, Warm-up numerical reasoning tests
  • Fourthly, Numerical critical reasoning tests
  • Fifthly, Numerical data interpretation tests
  • Sixthly, Advanced numerical data interpretation

Additional psychometric test practice resources

 Rob Williams Assessment offer all types of school entrance test practicepsychometric test practice, such as SHL, and career guidance resources.

Aptitude test tips.

How to do well on verbal reasoning tests

These come in many different types of format. The traditional comprehension format is to have a short text passage followed by a series of questions about facts, opinions, conclusions from the passage content. A bit like those English tests in primary school where you answered questions on a novel extract. Regardless of the type of test, it’s vital to remember:

  • To carefully read each question. Often questions hinge on 1-2 keywords so you must take more care to interpret these accurately.
  • If questioned whether something “always” applies whilst the passage states that it is “sometimes” the case, then this is a false interpretation.
  • One useful strategy is to scan the passage initially, then to read it in more detail.
  • It’s more efficient as you answer each question if you can recall roughly where to find the answer in the passage.

Top Verbal Reasoning Test Tips

§   You need to be very careful when interpreting the meaning of complex words. Particularly when you are being asked to make a judgement on the basis of a shade of meaning.

§   Look out for any words that imply something definitive, such as “always”, “never”, “all”. Do not confuse these with similar words or phrases that do not imply the same strength, for exmaple “almost always, most of the time, invariably” and “often”.

§   These are a precursor to the wide range of formats covered in the subsequent LNAT practice testing section. You would be advised to complete all these practice sections!

Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests Book Summary

  • Everyone uses verbal reasoning skills in both written and spoken communication.
  • Verbal reasoning tests are a fair and objective way to assess large numbers of candidates. They are used because they predict future performance at work.
  • There are many different types of verbal reasoning test on the market, at varying levels of difficulty.
  • Best way to prepare for a verbal reasoning test is to practice with questions that mirror your actual test format.
  • If you don’t already know exactly what type of verbal reasoning test you will be taking, you should find out as your first step. That way you will know what type of questions you need to practice.
  • It may be the last thing you want to do after taking the actual test, but on your test day you should also reflect on what – if any – questions you struggled with. This will help you target improvement areas if you face another verbal reasoning test.
  • You won’t be asked to repeat back information exactly the same way as you read it in the passage. Understanding what is being asked is just one of the ways that your verbal reasoning is being assessed.

We also recommend Rob Williams Assessment‘s FREE 11 Plus Practice Tests with answers.

11 plus verbal reasoning quiz

See our quiz link in the following section.

Your verbal reasoning skills may be something that you’ve taken for granted. Or you may have assumed that they are only relevant for people who like doing crosswords and playing Scrabble. In fact, reading comprehension is something that we all do every day in both our personal lives and at work.

From newspapers and magazines to correspondence and company reports, you use your verbal reasoning skills to make sense of all different types of writing. Whether you are aware of it or not, you use your verbal reasoning skills when following a new recipe, reading a notice at a train station, applying for a bank account, or browsing through holiday brochure.

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 1. Man with letters all around

Which Verbal Reasoning skills does the 11 plus test?

Everyone needs to have basic verbal reasoning skills to survive daily life. And good verbal reasoning skills are a key prerequisite for many different jobs. Any job that involves frequent communication requires verbal reasoning skills.

This could mean written communication in emails or reports, or spoken and written communication such as in teaching. In a commercial environment, for instance, call centre employees need to be able to converse clearly with their customers. At the graduate and managerial levels, many jobs require the interpretation and critical analysis of complex verbal information.

11 plus verbal reasoning test practice

Tips for Passing Verbal Reasoning

Verbal reasoning is one of the most common examinations these days which is considered a

determining criterion by many schools and colleges for admission purposes. Furthermore, these

examinations are also required for determining the IQ among teenage students and are a test that

is conducted by educational institutions for their students quite frequently. So, if a student is well

versed in these kinds of examinations, then it would be beneficial for them in the long run.

What is verbal reasoning examination like?

There are many kinds of verbal reasoning examination and the most common one is where a

passage is provided, from where key arguments need to be picked up and questions are to be

answered which will be related to the article or piece provided. The ability to summarize and

read through the whole comprehension keeping in mind the key points is important for forming a

logical argument.

For cracking these exams with flying colors, certain tips and tricks are required. When it comes

to verbal reasoning, a certain degree of analysis for perceiving the questions and understanding

what the ask is will be required. Here are some tips that will assist the students in passing the

verbal examinations.

The first tip is that applicants should be figuring out beforehand who the test provider will be. As

soon as the applicants figure that out, they will be asked to refer to a sample and the process goes

on. Figuring out who the test provider is important as all verbal reasoning examinations are not

the same and the questions differ from person to person. Some of the most common test

providers are Talent Q, SHL, Saville, and many more. If one figures out which provider will be

responsible for the questions will allow them to practice and study for it in that manner. A lot of

applicants do not consider this but this is a substantial advantage for getting good marks on the


Re-reading all the pieces of the text is the second most important tip. The test passages are not

written in a simple manner, rather they are provided in a complex manner intentionally to

determine the analytical skill of the students. Reading each passage more than two to three times

will make the students understand what is being said. It is important to understand the

instructions provided thoroughly and if no vital information is missed, one can always go back to

the questions and answers page.

The third important tip for all applicants who are appearing for the verbal reasoning test for the

first time in their life is not to make assumptions. There is no general knowledge that works here,

rather, every student must refer to the paragraph and the piece that has been provided here. Real-

life experiences should also not be taken into consideration. All the information that has been

presented on the paper or screens should be referred to only and if there is any information that is

not included in the passage, it should not affect the understanding of the applicants. Based on the

information that has been provided, the students can correlate that particular question and

proceed to answer. This is when the analytical skills of the students are analyzed.

Time management is another important tip for someone who does or does not have an experience

in this field. There will be multiple questions and the time provided for all those questions is

never enough. The first rule of getting good marks is always answering or attempting all the

questions first. There is a general thumb rule that one should be spending not more than a minute

on each of the questions. It is important that everyone is pre-prepared and knows how many

questions relate to the statement provided. The usual number is between 4 to 5 and this step of

understanding how many questions there are will assist in understanding how much time needs

to be allocated to each of the questions. In case, if a question seems out of the box and one

cannot understand what the answer will be, it will not be fruitful to waste any more time on it.

One will only get five minutes for answering all of them, so the applicant cannot ponder around

one tricky one. The rest 5 out of 6 questions can be answered correctly, as in cases of verbal

reasoning time management is more important than accuracy.

The next tip is working on or improving the analytical skills is important for every applicant for

grasping the questions better and coming up with the answers quicker. One can read business

articles from time to time as there contain a lot of complicated information and analyzing or

working on these kinds of articles, will allow the reader to build a mindset of looking for key

information in a massive article or a complicated statement. If one's analytical skills are top

notch, one will be able to figure out the key arguments and also understand the tone of the

author. For any form of critical analysis, having a decent level of analytical skills is important for

any individual.

Finally, learning from mistakes is required for being perfect on the test day. Practicing

thoroughly and failing fast is important for this. If someone fails early and learns quicker from

others about where they should not go wrong or how can they improve something will benefit

them on the test day. All of this analyzing, preparing, and making mistakes will make an

applicant fully ready for the test.

Thus, it can be inferred that having a certain level of experience with verbal reasoning and

practicing consistently will benefit everyone. For all applicants, the questions or pattern of the

test might not be the same and that's why figuring out the test provider is important as that will make the practice more effective.

What are numerical reasoning ability tests?

Numerical reasoning ability tests are often used in academic and professional settings to evaluate an individual’s cognitive abilities and potential, and they may be administered as part of a job application process, college entrance exams, or other selection processes where numerical skills are important. These tests can also be used to assess an individual’s proficiency in basic mathematical concepts such as fractions, percentages, and ratios, as well as more advanced mathematical concepts such as algebra and calculus.

How are verbal reasoning ability tests used?

Verbal reasoning ability test uses include:

  • Academic research
  • Professional recruitment and selection settings (for any position involving reading and written comprehension skills).
  • Assessing potential
  • College entrance exams, or other selection processes
  • Evaluate language proficiency
  • Assessing communication skills and/or the
  • Understanding of complex written instructions.

What are abstract reasoning ability tests?

Abstract reasoning ability tests assess an individual’s capacity to analyze and solve complex problems that do not rely on prior knowledge or experience. These tests typically involve the use of patterns, symbols, and logical reasoning to identify relationships between different elements.

In general, abstract reasoning ability tests aim to evaluate an individual’s capacity to:

  • Recognize and identify patterns and relationships
  • Reason logically and systematically
  • Analyze complex information and data
  • Apply critical thinking skills to solve problems

These tests are often used in academic and professional settings to evaluate a person’s cognitive abilities and potential, and they may be administered as part of a job application process, college entrance exams, or other selection processes where cognitive abilities are important.

School aptitude verbal reasoning Test practice quizzes

Verbal Reasoning 11 plus Practice Test One

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Practice Test Two

CAT4 Number Series. Computer code building an image
Ten Minute Maths Test

School aptitude tests for English

English writing skills. Womeon on laptop with dog.

School aptitude tests for Verbal reasoning

11Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 2. Child showing hands full of writing.

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 2

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 1. Man with letters all around

Verbal Reasoning Test 1 for the 11 plus

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test. Candidates writing test in exam venue

11 Plus Verbal Quiz 3

CLOZE Verbal Reasoning Tests. Girl with glasses on her head resting her arms on a stack of books

CLOZE Verbal Reasoning 11 plus Test

British Airways Aptitude Test Design Example

The Army psychometric design project we led for KenexaIBM encompassed several psychometric test designs:

  • Situational judgment test design;
  • Numerical reasoning test design;
  • Verbal reasoning test design
  • Personality questionnaire design.
  • Aptitude test design

For these two British Airways roles:

– Cabin crew assessment; and

– Customer service representative assessment.

British Army Aptitude Test Design Example

Psychometric lead role with Kenexa IBM; managing twenty associates.

  • We developed over twenty psychometric tests;
  • Situational judgement tests for Officers and for Soldiers;
  • Realistic job previews for Officers and for soldiers;
  • Ability tests (including problem-solving test) for Officers;
  • Ability tests (including a spatial reasoning test) for soldiers;
  • Officer personality questionnaire;
  • Soldier career guidance tools.

Aptitude Tests’ Vital Role

Many companies today are turning to testing and assessment tools to help them address these challenges and make more substantive and data-driven hiring decisions. Assessments are a great way to level the playing field and evaluate many candidates for the same skill sets in an objective fashion, using real-life technical scenarios that mirror the work they will be performing on the job. Automated assessment tools in particular can scale to make better use of your time and resources. Several key recruitment benefits are listed below.

Differentiation Benefits

Providing unbiased assessments is a great way to distinguish yourself to candidates in a crowded hiring environment. Candidates will see that you really care about hiring the most qualified tech workers in a manner that is unbiased and uncovers their true value.

Recruitment Cost and Recruitment Funnel Benefits

Automated testing helps you scale your recruiting efforts, evaluating many candidates simultaneously to save engineering hours, and ultimately the cost of those used hours, time and costs, which is particularly important for larger tech organizations.

Hiring, training and replacing a bad hire can cost almost 5x their annual salary. Making the right choice the first time around is vital to growing your business and keeping costs low.

Removing bias

Assessment tools give you a structured mechanism to remove bias from the evaluation and interview process. And it mitigates the disadvantage a candidate whose first language is not English may have in a traditional format.

Focusing on skills, not experience

Experience listed in a profile isn’t necessarily the most important indicator of true skills and expertise.

Assessments help you find candidates that may not have a lot of experience in a certain field. But nonetheless have the skills you’re looking for.

Consistent process benefits

Assessment tools help you standardize your ongoing evaluation process. You’ll get an objective look at how candidates perform in the testing phase and can then compare it to their success on the job. A post-mortem can reveal how a good (or bad) hire performed in the assessment and help you to duplicate (or avoid) that performance in the future.

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd has considerable experience in assessing test reliability test validity. This is one of the key final stages in any psychometric test design. Most recently we have been asked to validate situational judgement tests. In addition to testing the SJT reliability and to advise on suitable cut-off scores which minimise any adverse impact (due to gender, age, ethnic group and disability).

Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to assist with ensuring the psychometric properties of their trial psychometric tests. We consult on how to improve any test’s psychometric properties, particularly the test’s internal reliability and construct validity.

Our verbal reasoning advice on YouTube

Verbal reasoning test test design is one of our key psychometric test design specialities.

We also specialise in other forms of psychometric test design, such as personality test design and situational judgement test design design.

Clerical Checking Tests Samples

  • This has been the most dreadful storm this millenium.  The torrantial rain is causing chaos.  Thousands of devestated families have had to evacuate their homes.
  • Your cycling proficiancy test will take place next month.  It is advisible to recap on your highway code in the time leading up to your test.  Remember, it is imperative to put safety first.
  • This is  a fire percaution.  The key is available from reception.  Always return the key straigth away as others may need it.
  • Statistical tables show the values of the cummulative distribution functions.  They also contain probability dencity functions of certain common distributions for different values of their parametres.
  • Volunteer conservationalists worked through the night in a desparate attempt to rectify the damage from the storm.  They specialies in rebuilding fences and moving debrie from pathways.

Clerical Checking Test Example Questions

  • Already his dedication to the promotion of our policies has made a significant impact in our local area.  Therefore please vote for him as our new president in the comittee elections next month.
  • The endurance test required competitors to tolerate extreme physical challenge.  One potental problem being that the weather forcast had predicted rain and strong winds.
  • The immaculate appartment was bursting with antiques, and various other treasures he had acumulated from his world-wide travels.  He claimed the most precious items were those with sentimental value.

verbal reasoning test tips

Why test verbal reasoning?

Many medium-sized and large companies now use verbal Reasoning Tests as part of their standard recruitment processes. A standardised verbal Reasoning Test gives everyone the same opportunity to demonst.

Useful Websites

Firstly, try test publisher websites. Visit the test publisher Website once you know the type of psychometric tests you will be taking. Since most test publisher Websites offer practice questions.

For example, practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM TalentQ and SHL sites. Reputable test publishers will send you some sample questions for you to practice in advance.

Secondly, familiarise yourself with the test format. Read the instruction and introduction sections carefully for each psychometric test you will take. This should ensure you are familiar with the test format.

Verbal Reasoning Test Practice Tips. man in suit at computer, thinking.

Aptitude test tips

Verbal Reasoning Assessment Practice

Although you may not finish the test, the best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.

  • Firstly, before deciding upon your final answer. You may be able to rule out one or two of the multiple choice questions as incorrect.
  • Secondly, read each question and also review each chart very carefully.
  • Each question is worth the same so don’t spend too long on a single question. So, remember that you may find subsequent questions easier to answer. If there is time at the end of the test you can return to any unfinished questions.
  • Work efficiently, but do not rush.
  • Remember that you are not expected to finish the verbal reasoning test.
  • In fact we recommend that your best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.
  • Remember to only use the information that is provided.
  • Do not use any of your own background knowledge.

You can practise the most common verbal test types at the main test publisher websites. Practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM, TalentQ and SHL as these sites cover most of the tests you are likely to find.

verbal reasoning test tips

Our Practice Aptitude Test Books

  • Passing Verbal Reasoning practice test book. This is regularly featured in Amazon’s top ten study guide.
  • Plus, our Numeracy Test Practice book, which reached Number One when the publisher Pearson offered it for free (throughout the UK’s first 2020 lockdown) .  

An excellent guide to verbal reasoning tests.

This book is an extremely well written and helpful guide for anyone needing guidance in how to perform well in verbal reasoning tests. There are plenty of examples of the different levels of tests.Clear explanations of the correct responses are given. I would definitely recommend this book to anyone who is facing taking verbal reasoning tests in pursuit of a new job or promotion.

Found the layout of the book easy to follow. It has made the tests more accessible to me and will hopefully help me in my job search.

A Must Have for Verbal Reasoning Tests

Definitely one of the best books on verbal reasoning! Clearly outlines how to tackle each passage and makes you very aware of things that are designed to catch other people out such as Key Words. Pick this book up if you are taking a Verbal Reasoning Test.

5.0 out of 5 stars Very good. Great for both grads and experienced hires applying to large firms.

I was told that I needed to get good results in verbal and numerical reasoning for an upcoming job, but I felt very nervous about it. This book carefully explains why the tests are used and how to do your best. It was exactly what I was looking for. I didn’t want to waste $40 on those silly Test Monkey type websites, so I was happy with this book for US$10.
It would be great if he could produce a book that contains only practice tests for the True, False, Cannot Say tests since those are the common ones.

aptitude test tips

Our other psychometric test design specialities

Next generation assessment Design  ~ Sift Design ~ School Entrance Test Design ~ Skills Assessment designs ~ Leadership assessment designs ~ cyber security assessment designs.

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