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In this aptitude test design Category, you can firstly find all of our most useful and up-to-date aptitude test information.

Thinking Skills Assessment practice

Watson Glaser

Welcome to our feature on the Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test and our Watson Glaser Practice. The Watson Glaser thinking skills test is a psychometric test which assesses your critical thinking skills.

 Rob Williams Assessment offer all types of practice psychometric test resources.

We hope you find our FREE Watson Glaser practice test and Watson glaser Test tips useful!

Try our Passing each Watson Glaser Test section guide too and THE Best Watson Glaser test practice available.

Examples for each Watson Glaser test section

The Watson Glaser test is the most widely used critical thinking test in the world. There are five Watson Glaser sections.

We go through introducing and sharing the instructions for each of these five ‘Watson Glaser subtests’ below. Starting with the first Inferences section.

Practice Watson Glaser Test Inferences.

INSTRUCTIONS for Watson Glaser Test’s Inferences section 

You’ll have to decide whether a follow-on statement is true based on a prior statement.

Again, you have a binary choice in your answer: pick ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

INFERENCES EXAMPLE 1

Firstly, if the lights are on in a house and music can be heard coming from the house, a person might infer that someone is at home. But this inference may or may not be correct. It is possible that the people of the house did not turn the lights and the radio off when they left the house.

You therefore need to reflect upon the following two key Watson Glaser critical reasoning skills:

  • How quickly can you draw conclusions from facts?
  • Can you make judgements based on limited information?

Inferences examples 2, 3, 4

Statement:
Two hundred school students in their early teens voluntarily attended a recent weekend student conference in Leeds. At this conference, the topics of race relations and means of achieving lasting world peace were discussed, since these were problems that the students selected as being most vital in today’s world.


Proposed Inferences:


1. As a group, the students who attended this conference showed a keener interest in broad social problems than do most other people in their early teens.

The correct answer is PT.

Since, most people in their early teens do not show so much serious concern with broad social problems.

2. The majority of the students had not previously discussed the conference topics in the schools.

The correct answer is PF.

Since, the students’ growing awareness of these topics probably stemmed at least in part from
discussions with teachers and classmates.

3. The students came from all parts of the country.

The correct answer is ID.

Since there is no evidence for this inference.

4. The students discussed mainly industrial relations problems.

The correct answer is F.

Since, it is given in the statement of facts that the topics of race relations and means of achieving world peace were the problems chosen for discussion. 

Practice Watson Glaser Test Recognition of Assumptions.

INSTRUCTIONS for Watson glaser Test’s Recognition of Assumptions section 

Below are a number of statements. Each statement is followed by several proposed assumptions. You are to decide for each assumption whether a person, in making the given statement, is really making that assumption i.e., taking it for granted, justifiably or not. If you think that the given assumption is taken for granted in the statement, mark ‘YES’ under ‘Assumption made’ in the proper place on the answer sheet. If you think the assumption is not necessarily taken for granted in the statement, mark ‘NO’ in the space under ‘Assumption made’. 

Practice Watson Glaser Test Deduction

INSTRUCTIONS for Watson glaser Test’s Deduction section 

In this test, each exercise consists of several statements (premises) followed by several suggested conclusions. For the purpose of this test, consider the statements in each exercise as true without exception. Read the first conclusion beneath the statements.

If you think it necessarily follows from the statements given, mark ‘YES’ under ‘Conclusion follows’ in the proper place on the Answer Sheet. If you think it is not a necessary conclusion from the statements given mark ‘NO’ under ‘Conclusion follows’, even though you may believe it to be true from your general knowledge. Similarly, read and judge each of the other conclusions.

Deduction examples

Statement: Some holidays are rainy. All rainy days are boring.


Proposed Conclusions:

1. No clear days are boring.

The answer is NO. Since the conclusion does not follow.

You cannot tell from the statements whether or not clear days are boring.

Some may be.

2. Some holidays are boring.

The answer is YES. Since the conclusion necessarily follows from the statements.

According to them, the rainy holidays must be boring.


3. Some holidays are not boring.

The answer is NO.

Since, the conclusion does not follow.

Even though you may know that some holidays are very pleasant.

Practice Watson Glaser Test’s Interpretation

INSTRUCTIONS for Watson glaser Test’s Logical Interpretation sub-test

Each of the following exercises consists of a short paragraph followed by several suggested conclusions. For the purpose of this test, assume that everything in the short paragraph is true.

The problem is to judge whether or not each of the proposed conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the paragraph.

If you think that the proposed conclusion follows beyond a reasonable doubt (even though it may not follow absolutely and necessarily), mark ‘YES’ under ‘Conclusion Follows’ in the proper place on the answer sheet. If you think that the conclusion does not follow beyond a reasonable doubt from the facts given, mark ‘NO’ under ‘Conclusion Follows’.

Interpretation examples

Statement: A study of vocabulary growth in children from eight months to six years old shows that the size
of spoken vocabulary increases from 0 words at age eight months to 2,562 words at age six years.

Proposed Conclusions:

1. None of the children in this study had learned to talk by the age of six months.

YES, the conclusion follows beyond a reasonable doubt since, according to the statement, the size of the spoken vocabulary at eight months was 0 words.


2. Vocabulary growth is slowest during the period when children are learning to walk.

NO, the conclusion does not follow as there is no information given that relates growth of vocabulary to walking.

Practice Watson Glaser Test Evaluation of Arguments

INSTRUCTIONS Evaluation of Arguments sub-test

  • Each Evaluation of Arguments question is followed by several arguments.
  • For the purpose of the Watson Glaser Evaluation of Arguments sub-test, you are to regard each argument as true.
  • The problem then is to decide whether it is a strong or a weak argument. For an argument to be strong, it must be both important and directly related to the question. Whereas an argument is weak if it is:
    • Not directly related to the question. Even though it may be of great general importance.
    • Or if it is of minor importance.
    • Or if it is related only to trivial aspects of the question.

Evaluation of Arguments examples

Statement: Should all young people in the United Kingdom go on to higher education?

Proposed Arguments:

1. Yes; college provides an opportunity for them to wear college scarves.

WEAK, this would be a silly reason for spending years in college.

2. No; a large percentage of young people do not have enough ability or interest to derive any benefit from college training.

STRONG. If it is true, as the directions require us to assume, it is a weighty argument against all young people going to college.

3. No; excessive studying permanently warps an individual’s personality.

WEAK, this argument, although of great general importance when accepted as true, is not directly.

What is Watson Glaser test?

The Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, published by Pearson company Talent Lens, measures critical thinking skills and the capacity for solving problems.

Law firms and law schools all over the globe use Watson Glaser test results to sift out those prospectie lawyers with lesser critical thinking skills.

How is the Watson Glaser Test given?

  • The newer vision of the Watson Glaser test takes 40 minutes, whereas the older test requires 55 minutes.
  • It is crucial when taking the Watson Glaser to only use the information presented.
  • This is intentional since these legal recruitment must assesses such unbiased and objective thinking skills.

What are the 5 Watson Glaser sections?

:et’s start with this question: How many sections are in the Watson Glaser Test? There are five test sections in the Watson Glaser Test. As follows:

  1. ASSUMPTIONS.
  2. ANALYSING ARGUMENTS
  3. DEDUCTIONS
  4. INFERENCES
  5. INTERPRETATION OF STATEMENTS

Now let us consider each of these five Watson Glaser sub-tests in detail.

Plus how a lawyer demostrated the necessary critical reasoning skills needed to pass that Watson Glaser sub-test.

And then we will move on to consider how to pass each Watson Glaser sub-test.

Watson Glaser test practice

What is the Watson Glaser ASSUMPTIONS sub-test ?

The Watson glaser sub-test called Assumptions is all about recongising where assumptions have been made. Of course these are unstated. So in practice a criminal barrister needs to be able to spot assumptions that are being made in a criminal case. And to then bring such ‘unstated assumptions’ to the attention of the judge and jury.

What does the Watson Glaser ASSUMPTIONS sub-test look like?

  • Sets of statements are presented to the candidate.
  • Each Watson Glaser candidate must then determine whether each of these presented assumptions have been made by the passage.
  • Or not been assumed within the Watson Glaser Assumptions text passage.

Watson Glaser test practice

ANALYSING ARGUMENTS subtest

In this Watson Glaser sub-test, each argument presented to the Watson Glaser test-taker must be analysed. Then the list of points in favour and points against the contentious position must be reviewed.

This replicates how a lawyer must assess both the arguments they themselves use. Plus the arguments used against their own case.

What does the Watson Glaser ANALYSING ARGUMENTS sub-test look like?

  1. Watson Glaser candidates need to consider how relevant each argued point is to the original question posed.
  2. Then to determine whether each argued point is weak because it does not directly relate to the posed question, or strong because it does.

Watson Glaser test practice

DEDUCTIONS Watson Glaser sub-test

Here, Watson Glaser candidates need to determinie whether certain conclusions follow necessarily from the information presented in each Watson Glaser Deductions’ series of statements.

What does the Watson Glaser DEDUCTIONS sub-test look like?

Here, candidates evaluate a set of deductions from a passage of prose; determining if each deduction does or does follow on from the information in the passage.

Watson Glaser test practice

INFERENCES Watson Glaser test section

The Inferences sub-test of the Watson Glaser Test involves evaluating the validity of inferences. These are drawn from a series of factual statements.

What does the Watson Glaser ANALYSING ARGUMENTS sub-test look like?

In this Watson Glaser subtest, candidates are presented with a list of possible inferences from a passage; rating each one as true, false, possibly true, possibly false or whether they cannot say from the information provided.

Watson Glaser test practice

INTERPRETATION OF STATEMENTS Watson Glaser sub-test

Here, in this Watson Glaser test section, candidates must analyse the ‘evidence’ provided in a passage of prose. This is similar to the critical reasoning processes described in the Inferences Watson Glaser sub-test section described above.

What does the Watson Glaser INTERPRETATION OF STATEMENTS sub-test look like?

Watson Glaser candidates must decide if each of a series of conclusions follows on logically from the presented information.

Watson Glaser test practice

So, what is the Watson Glaser’s Critical Reasoning?

The term “critical reasoning” might sound a bit intimidating, but it is a skill you can learn.

Critical reasoning is quite literally applying a critic’s eye (i.e. critical analysis) to verbal information. It encompasses the logical analysis of the following features of complex written arguments and viewpoints: assumptions; inferences; opinions; facts and interpretations.

Is the Watson Glaser an aptitude test?

Yes, it is an aptitude test; assessing your ability to think critically, evaluate arguments, recognise assumptions, assess strong and weak arguments and draw conclusions. 

Normally, you’ll have around 40 questions, split into five different sections: inference assessment, recognising assumptions, deduction interpretation and evaluation of arguments.

Questions will ask things like whether a statement is true or false, based on the information given.

What’s the pass mark?

There’s no set pass or fail mark. Assessment is based on a percentile basis compared to the rest of the applicants. You may receive your percentile score, but this depends on the firm to which you’re applying. 

What’s the time limit?

The test takes approximately 35-40 minutes to complete, either online or in paper-and-pencil format. Although, the amount of time you have depends on which law firm you’re applying to. The typical duration is 30 minutes, meaning you’ll have about 45 seconds to answer each question. However, each firm can give out their own deadlines.

How can I get extra time?

Legally, you are allowed to receive extra time to complete the Watson Glaser test if you specify a disability in advance. Hence, it’s important to contact the law firm and provide them with the relevant details ahead of time. 

How can I prepare for the Watson Glaser test?

To prepare for the Watson Glaser test, there are quite a few free practice tests available online, giving the chance to get a feel for it. If you want to practice more, there are others available online for a fee. It’s a good idea to try out as many practice tests as possible, to ensure you can complete it within the time limit.

Aside from practice tests, there are many simple ways you can prepare for the exam. The Watson Glaser test aims to assess your critical thinking skills, so it’s a good idea to practice this.

You can do this by reading articles or watching debates, and trying to think about the strength of the arguments. However, be sure to set personal biases aside when doing this. During the test, it’s vital that you answer the questions based on the information given, forgetting about information from elsewhere.

With the right practice, most individuals can develop their skills sufficiently to pass this type of verbal critical reasoning test.

What are the Watson Glaser’s 5 sections?

The  critical reasoning questions in the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal are divided into five sections.

Each section’s type of critical verbal reasoning test is described below: 

1. Watson Glaser Test’s Recognition of Assumptions Section

Following each set of statements, this section asks the candidate whether any of a series of assumptions has been made by the passage, or not. 

2. Watson Glaser Test’s Evaluation of Arguments sub-test

 Each set of question in this Watson Glaser section starts with a contentious question. Or whether it is a strong argument because it does relate directly. 

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test and our Watson Glaser Practice

3. Watson Glaser Test’s Deduction Section

Here, candidates must evaluate a set of deductions from a passage of prose. Then determine if each deduction does or does not follow on from the information in the passage. 

4. Inference section of the Watson Glaser Test

Candidates must rate each possible inference as true, false, possibly true, possibly false or whether they cannot say. This analysis must be based each time only on the Watson Glaser information provided. Not from any other background or prior knowledge.

5. Evaluation of Arguments Watson Glaser SubTest

From the evidence within a passage of prose, candidates must decide if each of a series of conclusions follows on logically from the presented information.  

Critical Reasoning Test Introduction

  • Critical reasoning tests, such as the LNAT, ask you to identify assumptions, inferences and the points made within “overall” arguments.
  • It does not assess any knowledge of laws or any legal ability.
  • You need to answer 42 questions.

Critical reasoning is quite literally applying a critic’s eye (i.e. critical analysis) to verbal information. It encompasses the logical analysis of the following features of complex written arguments and viewpoints: assumptions; inferences; opinions; facts and interpretations.

The term “critical reasoning” might sound a bit intimidating, but it is a skill you can learn. With the right practice, most individuals can develop their skills sufficiently to pass this type of verbal critical reasoning test.

What is critical reasoning?

Critical reasoning is quite literally applying a critic’s eye (i.e. critical analysis) to verbal information. It encompasses the logical analysis of the following features of complex written arguments and viewpoints: assumptions; inferences; opinions; facts and interpretations.

The term “critical reasoning” might sound a bit intimidating, but it is a skill you can learn. With the right practice, most individuals can develop their skills sufficiently to pass this type of verbal reasoning critical reasoning test.

How to prepare for Critical Thinking tests

These are a learned skill. With the right training, most individuals who have an average or above the ability to learn can develop reasonable critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills include the ability to define a problem clearly, the ability to formulate and select relevant hypotheses and to judge the validity of inferences. A good grasp of these skills enables a person to ‘think on his feet’, to assess evidence and arguments and to communicate clearly.

Who uses critical reasoning skills?

Everyone uses these skills sometimes, but some job roles specifically require a high level of verbal critical reasoning. For example, many senior managerial and executive positions require you to assess evidence effectively and to communicate your position clearly.

Lawyers, in particular, need excellent critical reasoning skills. Barristers, for example, use critical reasoning to:

  • Remain objective and not to be prejudiced by their own opinions.
  • Analyze large amounts of verbal information to build a case for their client.
  • Identify the different ways legal doctrine can be interpreted.
  • Present their evidence in court and state their conclusion based on it.

A judge (or jury) will in turn use their critical reasoning skills to balance all the evidence for and against the accused and reach a verdict.

Journalists also need to have a high level of critical reasoning skills. When commenting on a current affairs debate, a journalist will typically present all sides of the argument. After careful thought, and backed up by evidence, they then commit their own analysis to the page.

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test and our Watson Glaser Practice

Deduction v Inference

It’s not just the person writing a newspaper article who needs to use critical reasoning skills – the person reading the article needs to apply their own critical reasoning skills too. An astute reader always asks: Does the writer’s overall conclusion follow on from the evidence and facts presented?

This question is an example of logical deduction or deductive reasoning – the linking of one or more statements, or premises, to make a logically sound conclusion.

On the other hand, inductive reasoning or inference, is based on discerning what is probable or what is likely to be true from true premises. Critical reasoning involves applying both inductive and deductive reasoning to arguments.

What kind of Watson Glaser questions are there?

Some questions will ask the candidate whether a statement is True or False, as per a verbal comprehension critical reasoning test. The inherent logic – or otherwise – of these arguments is critical reasoning tested. The presented evidence and facts need to be analysed and subtle shades of meaning interpreted.

There are three broad types of critical reasoning question, as seen in the practice critical reasoning tests in Part 2.

Interpretation-type questions:
  • Which sentence best summarizes the passage?
  • … word could be substituted for another in the passage?
  • Which of the following words is the most suitable replacement?
  • What is meant by the following term?
  • Which facts are included in the passage?
Summary-type questions:
  • What is the main point the passage is making?
  • Which of the following statements best summarizes the second paragraph?
  • … statement best summarises what the author is saying in the last paragraph?
  • Which of these statements does not form part of the passage’s argument?

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test and our Watson Glaser Practice

Assumptions and Deductions:
  • What can be inferred about X from the passage?
  • Which of the following can be deduced from the passage?
  • … of the following assumptions is made in the passage?
  • Which statements lend support to the passage’s argument?
  • … of these opinions is expressed by the author?

Improving the speed with which you can digest complex prose will help your critical reasoning test performance. Read the passage quickly the first time to get a feel for the main points. Then read the passage a second time more carefully, mentally noting the key content of each paragraph. Focus on the core of the argument and its supporting evidence, together with the author’s stance on the issue.

Watson-Glaser practice

While you need to absorb the critical reasoning test passages as efficiently as possible, that does not mean that you need to rush your answers. Quite the opposite, since there will be many different question formats. It is very important to double check that you are 100% clear on what the question is asking for.

To pass a critical reasoning critical reasoning test you need to understand the development of an argument – in particular, what points provide factual support. Reading commentary on political, social and economic debates will certainly improve your understanding.

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test – Watson Glaser Practice

How can I pass my critical reasoning test?

As you read such material, ask yourself:

– How are individual’s opinions, counteracts and factual evidence expressed.

– Is there one or more argument? One or more conclusion?

– Is each piece of information reliable? Would you draw the same conclusion yourself.

– What additional information would you need to frame a counterargument?

-Do not let your own general knowledge lead you astray. It’s vital that you do not let any of your personal opinions or your general knowledge influence your answers even slightly. This recommendation applies even if it seems that the correct answer is in direct contradiction to what you know or believe to be true.

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test – Watson Glaser Practice

Critical reasoning test tips

To summarise,these are the skills you need to demonstrate to succeed on a critical reasoning critical reasoning test:

  • Identifying statements that are untrue.
  • Separating facts from inferences and opinions.
  • Identifying the implications of a factual statement.
  • Making logical deductions from a passage of prose.

Everyone uses these skills sometimes, but some job roles specifically require a high level of verbal critical reasoning. For example, many senior managerial and executive positions require you to assess evidence effectively and to communicate your position clearly.

Watson Glaser Critical Reasoning Test – Watson Glaser Practice

Lawyers, in particular, need excellent critical reasoning skills. Barristers, for example, need to employ a wide range of critical reasoning skills. Such as thefollowing:

  • Remaining objective and unbiased.
  • Analyzing large amounts of verbal information to build a case for their client.
  • Identifying different legal interpretations.
  • Presenting their evidence in court.
  • Stating their conclusion based on that evidence.

A judge (or jury) will, in turn, use their critical reasoning skills to balance all the evidence for and against the accused and reach a verdict.

Similarly, journalists also need to have a high level of critical reasoning skills. When commenting on a current affairs debate, a journalist will present all sides of the argument. After careful thought, and backed up by evidence, they then commit their own analysis to the page.

Watson Glaser Practice Tests

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NR

Numerical Reasoning Test tips

Many medium-sized and large companies now use Numerical Reasoning Tests as part of their standard recruitment processes. A standardised Numerical Reasoning Test gives everyone the same numerical reasoning questions.

If you can’t find what you are looking for here, then we suggest reviewing the full range of aptitude practice tests here.

Our numerical reasoning test book 

Why test numerical reasoning?

Numerical Reasoning Tests need to accommodate the very wide difference in mathematical ability from school leavers to senior managers.  Correspondingly there is a range of increasingly difficult Numerical Reasoning Tests from the basic Numeracy Tests (which only require mathematical knowledge of the 4 basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) to the most complex and numerical reasoning involved in the interpretation of complex statitistical data.

Continue reading NR
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SHL Practice Tests

Welcome to our SHL practice tests; SHL are the publisher of the OPQ in the UK, and globally.

PwC’s SHL psychometric tests

PwC uses SHL (CEB) test provider for their psychometric tests – the online reasoning tests are highly effective to filter to the best 10% of applications, from the several thousand they receive per role.

Continue reading SHL Practice Tests
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Digital skills guide

Welcome to our digital marketing jobs listings.

We also offer a short exploration of the latest digital marketing skills.

 


Welcome to our exploration of digital marketing skills. Plus, the new era job roles for which these specialist marketing skills are most needed,

We start with one of the most widely publicised, the professional gamer.

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Numerical reasoning and verbal tests

Free online test practice

 Free online numerical reasoning test practicefree online verbal reasoning test practice

Passing numerical reasoning tests

There aren’t any quick wins for being good at maths but some focussed practice will improve your score, as will following a few test-taking strategies.

As a timed assessment, you need to average around one minute per question. Work briskly but accurately. Each question counts the same so pick off the easy ones first and don’t waste your test time on the most difficult questions.

Numerical reasoning test practice is an excellent means of brushing-up on any maths functions you haven’t used in a while. Ensure that you are comfortable using data tables, interpreting graphs and manipulating large financial figures.

You can practise the most common numerical test types at the main test publisher websites. Practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM, TalentQ and SHL as these sites cover most of the tests you are likely to find.

Passing verbal reasoning tests 

Verbal reasoning assessments come in many different types of format.

The traditional comprehension format is to have a short passage followed by a series of questions – asking about facts, opinions, and conclusions – based on its content, a bit like those English tests in primary school where you answered questions on a novel extract.

Regardless of the type of test, it’s vital to carefully read each question. Often questions hinge on one or two key words, so you must take more care to interpret these accurately. If questioned whether something “always” applies whilst the passage states that it is “sometimes” the case, then this is a false interpretation.

Scan the passage initially and then read it in more detail. It’s easier to answer each question if you can recall roughly where to find the answer in the text.

Passing abstract reasoning tests

These ask you to look for the changing pattern(s) in the “pictures”.

The easier questions typically appear at the start of the assessment and will involve one change in colour, position, size etc .of the figures shown.

Questions become more difficult as you progress and must spot two or three changes in any of the features shown. Once you’ve worked out at least one of the feature changes, check through the answer options to discount those that do not conform.

Passing personality tests

When it comes to answering psychometric surveys that evaluate personality, the best advice is to give your “first response”.

Visualise how you would behave at work on a typical good day. Don’t second guess what is being looked for since “faking” and lying are easily picked up.

Practice, practice, practice psychometric tests

Like anything, practice makes perfect. And don’t be afraid to ask the employer which publisher’s tests they use – most will be happy to tell you.

Being familiar with the format, as well as the kinds of questions asked, will give you a clear advantage. On the day, keep calm and remember that most assessments are timed, so answer the questions as swiftly as you can.

Being familiar with the format, as well as the kinds of questions asked, will give you a clear advantage. On the day, keep calm and remember that most assessments are timed, so answer the questions as swiftly as you can.

Popular Personality Surveys

You might also enjoy the following:

Firstly, How stressed is your child?

Secondly, How effective is your decision-making style?

Thirdly, How are your Basic Tutoring Skills?

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And, How Effective Are Your Time Management Skills?

Plus, Do your Tutoring Skills Need a Tune-Up?

Finally, How well-developed are your English writing skills.

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BOOKS

Welcome to our practice aptitude tests and aptitude test preparation tips.

If you can’t find what you are looking for here, then we suggest reviewing the full range of aptitude practice tests here.

Aptitude test design specialists

We are aptitude test specialists for all the common adult and child aptitude tests. Do contact us if you have any aptitude test questions which can’t be answered here.

Our numerical reasoning test book:

Who are our aptitide test practice books aimed at?

  • Each aptitude test practice book is packed with examples of every kind of aptitude test.
  • The Passing Aptitude Tests series take you through everything you need to pass with flying colours.
  • Are you chasing a job that you really want, but need to take a verbal reasoning test to get it?
  • With the help of this book, you’ll sharpen your skills and quickly become confident in your ability to pass. To feel practiced, prepared and confident. To get you ready to take on any type of test. Plus, helping aptitude test takers to develop aptitude test taking strategy to maximise their aptitude test performance.

Passing aptitude Tests book series Part 1

Our Verbal Reasoning practice test book chapters

  • Firstly, Getting started
  • Secondly, Practice makes perfect
  • Thirdly, Mastering reading comprehension
  • Fourthly, Sharpen your critical reasoning skills
  • Fifthly, Succeed on test day

Part 2 – Time to practice

  • Firstly, Warm up tests
  • Secondly, Reading comprehension tests
  • Thirdly, Verbal reasoning tests
  • Fourthly, Critical reasoning tests

Our Numerical Reasoning practice test book chapters

Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests PART I

  • Firstly, Getting started.
  • Secondly, Practice makes perfect.
  • Thirdly, Brush up your maths skills.
  • Fourthly, Succeed on test day.

PART II Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests

  • Firstly, Basic numerical reasoning tests.
  • Secondly, Numerical comprehension tests
  • Thirdly, Warm-up numerical reasoning tests
  • Fourthly, Numerical critical reasoning tests
  • Fifthly, Numerical data interpretation tests
  • Sixthly, Advanced numerical data interpretation

The best psychometric test practice 

  • Free practice LNAT critical verbal reasoning tests.
  • Aptitude test tips and aptitude test practice
  • SHL test practice

How to do well on verbal reasoning tests

These come in many different types of format. The traditional comprehension format is to have a short text passage followed by a series of questions about facts, opinions, conclusions from the passage content. A bit like those English tests in primary school where you answered questions on a novel extract. Regardless of the type of test, it’s vital to remember:

  • To carefully read each question. Often questions hinge on 1-2 keywords so you must take more care to interpret these accurately.
  • If questioned whether something “always” applies whilst the passage states that it is “sometimes” the case, then this is a false interpretation.
  • One useful strategy is to scan the passage initially, then to read it in more detail.
  • It’s more efficient as you answer each question if you can recall roughly where to find the answer in the passage.

Top Verbal Reasoning Test Tips

§   You need to be very careful when interpreting the meaning of complex words. Particularly when you are being asked to make a judgement on the basis of a shade of meaning.

§   Look out for any words that imply something definitive, such as “always”, “never”, “all”. Do not confuse these with similar words or phrases that do not imply the same strength, for exmaple “almost always, most of the time, invariably” and “often”.

§   These are a precursor to the wide range of formats covered in the subsequent LNAT practice testing section. You would be advised to complete all these practice sections!

Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests Book Summary

  • Everyone uses verbal reasoning skills in both written and spoken communication.
  • Verbal reasoning tests are a fair and objective way to assess large numbers of candidates. They are used because they predict future performance at work.
  • There are many different types of verbal reasoning test on the market, at varying levels of difficulty.
  • Best way to prepare for a verbal reasoning test is to practice with questions that mirror your actual test format.
  • If you don’t already know exactly what type of verbal reasoning test you will be taking, you should find out as your first step. That way you will know what type of questions you need to practice.
  • It may be the last thing you want to do after taking the actual test, but on your test day you should also reflect on what – if any – questions you struggled with. This will help you target improvement areas if you face another verbal reasoning test.
  • You won’t be asked to repeat back information exactly the same way as you read it in the passage. Understanding what is being asked is just one of the ways that your verbal reasoning is being assessed.

Example police aptitude test questions

Here are some police entry test sample quesitons from the USA:

Specifically, the math portion of the exam contains 20 questions, the reading comprehension section contains 25 questions, the language skills portion contains 20 questions, and the writing sample contains 10 questions. In order to score 75% on the entire exam, at least 57 questions must be answered correctly.

Therefore, given the limited time in which to answer questions, examinees should focus their time and attention on the questions that they find easier.

Spending too much time on one question can result in the examinee running out of time and not being able to answer other questions.

Q1 – Bail for Mr. Anders was set at £250,000. To be released, he must pay 10% of this in cash. How much must Mr. Anders pay?
£250 £2,500 £20,500 £25,000

Q2 – A car skidded 800cm before coming to a complete stop. The accident report must list the distance in metres only. Whats the distance?
.8m 8m 80m 800m

Q3 – An Amazon wearehouse loses 21 iPads valued at £10,500. What is their average value?

£105 £500 £550 £1055 £220,500

What are the Police entry verbal reasoning test formats?

Q4 – To reach a car accident from her police station, a police officer travel 3km down one Road, 4km after the next turning, then 14.5km on the motorway. Whats the distance to get to the accident and back?

police aptitude test practice

Different regional police services across the UK use different types of verbal reasoning test.

(type 1)


Police entry examinees may needc to read passages relating to police duty and will then answer questions based on these passages. All the information needed to answer the questions will be provided in the passage. The passages present potential rules and laws relating to police work.

(type 2)

True/false questions. The statement will be either accurate and true based on the passage or form, or the statement will be inaccurate and false according to the passage or form.

(type 3)

Choose the correct answer according to the information presented in the passage or on a sample report form.

(type 4)

Find alternative that best completes the sentence.

police aptitude test practice – police sample questions

(type 5)

  • Incomplete sentences are presented.
  • The examinee must choose the alternative that best completes the sentence.

(type 6)

Sentences with spelling errors are presented. Here, the examinee must choose the alternative that contains the misspelled

A police officer must have high regard for his own appearence because police officers are public figures.
Which word is spelt wrongly?
officer regard appearence figures none of the above

Officer Hill searched the suspect and found three ____ in the suspect’s backpack.

knife knifes knives

After arresting the suspect, Officer Carma _ the suspect for weapons and found a firearm in the suspect’s coat pocket.
search searched searches searching

School aptitude Test practice

 

School aptitude test practice for Maths:

GCSE Maths Practice Test Quiz

CAT4 Number Series. Computer code building an image

CAT4 Quantitative Test 1

11+ Maths Practice Test 1

Ten Minute Maths Test

11 Plus Maths Sample Test

School aptitude tests for English

SATs Grammar Practice

English writing skills. Womeon on laptop with dog.

How to improve your written English language skills

School aptitude tests for Verbal reasoning

11Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 2. Child showing hands full of writing.

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 2

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test 1. Man with letters all around

Verbal Reasoning Test 1 for the 11 plus

11 Plus Verbal Reasoning Test. Candidates writing test in exam venue

11 Plus Verbal Quiz 3

CLOZE Verbal Reasoning Tests. Girl with glasses on her head resting her arms on a stack of books

CLOZE Verbal Reasoning 11 plus Test

British Airways Aptitude Test Design Example

The Army psychometric design project we led for KenexaIBM encompassed several psychometric test designs:

  • Situational judgment test design;
  • Numerical reasoning test design;
  • Verbal reasoning test design
  • Personality questionnaire design.
  • Aptitude test design

For these two British Airways roles:

– Cabin crew assessment; and

– Customer service representative assessment.

British Army Aptitude Test Design Example

Psychometric lead role with Kenexa IBM; managing twenty associates.

  • We developed over twenty psychometric tests;
  • Situational judgement tests for Officers and for Soldiers;
  • Realistic job previews for Officers and for soldiers;
  • Ability tests (including problem-solving test) for Officers;
  • Ability tests (including a spatial reasoning test) for soldiers;
  • Officer personality questionnaire;
  • Soldier career guidance tools.

Aptitude Tests’ Vital Role

Many companies today are turning to testing and assessment tools to help them address these challenges and make more substantive and data-driven hiring decisions. Assessments are a great way to level the playing field and evaluate many candidates for the same skill sets in an objective fashion, using real-life technical scenarios that mirror the work they will be performing on the job. Automated assessment tools in particular can scale to make better use of your time and resources. Several key recruitment benefits are listed below.

Differentiation Benefits

Providing unbiased assessments is a great way to distinguish yourself to candidates in a crowded hiring environment. Candidates will see that you really care about hiring the most qualified tech workers in a manner that is unbiased and uncovers their true value.

Recruitment Cost and Recruitment Funnel Benefits

Automated testing helps you scale your recruiting efforts, evaluating many candidates simultaneously to save engineering hours, and ultimately the cost of those used hours, time and costs, which is particularly important for larger tech organizations.

Hiring, training and replacing a bad hire can cost almost 5x their annual salary. Making the right choice the first time around is vital to growing your business and keeping costs low.

Removing bias

Assessment tools give you a structured mechanism to remove bias from the evaluation and interview process. And it mitigates the disadvantage a candidate whose first language is not English may have in a traditional format.

Focusing on skills, not experience

Experience listed in a profile isn’t necessarily the most important indicator of true skills and expertise.

Assessments help you find candidates that may not have a lot of experience in a certain field. But nonetheless have the skills you’re looking for.

Consistent process benefits

Assessment tools help you standardize your ongoing evaluation process. You’ll get an objective look at how candidates perform in the testing phase and can then compare it to their success on the job. A post-mortem can reveal how a good (or bad) hire performed in the assessment and help you to duplicate (or avoid) that performance in the future.

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd has considerable experience in assessing test reliability test validity. This is one of the key final stages in any psychometric test design. Most recently we have been asked to validate situational judgement tests. In addition to testing the SJT reliability and to advise on suitable cut-off scores which minimise any adverse impact (due to gender, age, ethnic group and disability).

Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to assist with ensuring the psychometric properties of their trial psychometric tests. We consult on how to improve any test’s psychometric properties, particularly the test’s internal reliability and construct validity.

Our verbal reasoning advice on YouTube

Verbal reasoning test test design is one of our key psychometric test design specialities.

We also specialise in other forms of psychometric test design, such as personality test design and situational judgement test design design.

Clerical Checking Tests Samples

  • This has been the most dreadful storm this millenium.  The torrantial rain is causing chaos.  Thousands of devestated families have had to evacuate their homes.
  • Your cycling proficiancy test will take place next month.  It is advisible to recap on your highway code in the time leading up to your test.  Remember, it is imperative to put safety first.
  • This is  a fire percaution.  The key is available from reception.  Always return the key straigth away as others may need it.
  • Statistical tables show the values of the cummulative distribution functions.  They also contain probability dencity functions of certain common distributions for different values of their parametres.
  • Volunteer conservationalists worked through the night in a desparate attempt to rectify the damage from the storm.  They specialies in rebuilding fences and moving debrie from pathways.

Clerical Checking Test Example Questions

  • Already his dedication to the promotion of our policies has made a significant impact in our local area.  Therefore please vote for him as our new president in the comittee elections next month.
  • The endurance test required competitors to tolerate extreme physical challenge.  One potental problem being that the weather forcast had predicted rain and strong winds.
  • The immaculate appartment was bursting with antiques, and various other treasures he had acumulated from his world-wide travels.  He claimed the most precious items were those with sentimental value.

verbal reasoning test tips

Why test verbal reasoning?

Many medium-sized and large companies now use verbal Reasoning Tests as part of their standard recruitment processes. A standardised verbal Reasoning Test gives everyone the same opportunity to demonst.

Useful Websites

Firstly, try test publisher websites. Visit the test publisher Website once you know the type of psychometric tests you will be taking. Since most test publisher Websites offer practice questions.

For example, practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM TalentQ and SHL sites. Reputable test publishers will send you some sample questions for you to practice in advance.

Secondly, familiarise yourself with the test format. Read the instruction and introduction sections carefully for each psychometric test you will take. This should ensure you are familiar with the test format.

Verbal Reasoning Test Practice Tips. man in suit at computer, thinking.
Secondly, Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book by Rob Williams

Aptitude test tips

Verbal Reasoning Assessment Practice

Although you may not finish the test, the best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.

  • Firstly, before deciding upon your final answer. You may be able to rule out one or two of the multiple choice questions as incorrect.
  • Secondly, read each question and also review each chart very carefully.
  • Each question is worth the same so don’t spend too long on a single question. So, remember that you may find subsequent questions easier to answer. If there is time at the end of the test you can return to any unfinished questions.
  • Work efficiently, but do not rush.
  • Remember that you are not expected to finish the verbal reasoning test.
  • In fact we recommend that your best strategy is to answer as many questions as you can in the time available.
  • Remember to only use the information that is provided.
  • Do not use any of your own background knowledge.

You can practise the most common verbal test types at the main test publisher websites. Practise sample questions from Kenexa-IBM, TalentQ and SHL as these sites cover most of the tests you are likely to find.

verbal reasoning test tips

Our Practice Aptitude Test Books

  • Passing Verbal Reasoning practice test book. This is regularly featured in Amazon’s top ten study guide.
  • Plus, our Numeracy Test Practice book, which reached Number One when the publisher Pearson offered it for free (throughout the UK’s first 2020 lockdown) .  

An excellent guide to verbal reasoning tests.

This book is an extremely well written and helpful guide for anyone needing guidance in how to perform well in verbal reasoning tests. There are plenty of examples of the different levels of tests.Clear explanations of the correct responses are given. I would definitely recommend this book to anyone who is facing taking verbal reasoning tests in pursuit of a new job or promotion.

Found the layout of the book easy to follow. It has made the tests more accessible to me and will hopefully help me in my job search.

A Must Have for Verbal Reasoning Tests

Definitely one of the best books on verbal reasoning! Clearly outlines how to tackle each passage and makes you very aware of things that are designed to catch other people out such as Key Words. Pick this book up if you are taking a Verbal Reasoning Test.

5.0 out of 5 stars Very good. Great for both grads and experienced hires applying to large firms.

I was told that I needed to get good results in verbal and numerical reasoning for an upcoming job, but I felt very nervous about it. This book carefully explains why the tests are used and how to do your best. It was exactly what I was looking for. I didn’t want to waste $40 on those silly Test Monkey type websites, so I was happy with this book for US$10.
It would be great if he could produce a book that contains only practice tests for the True, False, Cannot Say tests since those are the common ones.

aptitude test tips

Admissions tests

Contact us Today

abstract reasoning test strategies. Abstract shapes.

NVR

Welcome to our abstract reasoning test practice and abstract reasoning test tips. Many big organisations, such as banks and managament consultancies, use Abstract Reasoning Tests to recruit top graduates and for their managerial selection.

Non-verbal reasoning tests (nvr) overlap with abstract reasoning tests and logical reasoning tests.

What are abstract reasoning tests?

NVR tests measure general intelligence by assessing the ability to identify the inherent patterns in a series of shapes/figures. The figures may be regular geometric shapes like triangles, squares and triangles. However, sometimes they are just dots. Or just crosses.

NVR tests come in many different formats, but here are some common characteristics:

  1. Diagrams are used – instead of numbers or words. NVR tests do not rely on any knowledge of either English or maths. This is what makes them a fairer assessment than, ‘pure’ English or Maths tests.
  2. Questions are based on a sequence involving several sets of figures.

Some example abstract reasoning tests

Figures are arranged in a sequence, series or matrix format.
The next figure in the sequence must be found amongst the answer options offered.

Abstract reasoning test tips

Graduate abstract reasoning test scores provide an indication of learning potential. Abstract reasoning tests indicate an ability to reason logically and to work with new ‘ideas’. In summary, non-verbal reasoning tests assess critical thinking.

Most of these practice test sites also offer their own abstract reasoning test tips and non verbal reasoning tips.

<  <   <   FREE sample CAT4 Abstract Reasoning test paper    >   >   >

What is an abstract reasoning test?

  • Abstract reasoning is often the test format which people are least familiar with.
  • There are several abstract reasoning test formats. You may be familiar with these from any IQ tests you’ve completed.
  • Abstract reasning tests contain many figures – grouped together in pattern(s) which need to be identified.

What are abstract reasoning skills?

  • Analysing Shapes and Letters
  • Breaking Codes
  • Completing Series of Shapes
  • Matrices
  • Find the Odd One
  • Similar shapes and figures

How to do well on abstract reasoning tests

Abstract reasoning tests ask you to look for the changing pattern(s) in the “pictures”. The easier questions typically at the start of the test, will involve one change in colour, position, size etc of the figures shown.

Questions become more difficult as you must spot two or three changes in any of the features shown. It can help, once you’ve worked out at least one of the feature changes, to check through the answer options to discount those that do not conform said feature changes.

Alongside SHL’s practise test pages these three sites cover most of the psychometric tests you are likely to find. You can ask in advance which test publisher’s test you will take.

Types of Abstract Reasoning Test

The individual boxes contain a series of ever-evolving figures. For example, there may be one black square and four white circles in the first box. The pattern could be an increase in the number of black figures by one for each step in the series. Thus, the pattern in the second box would be two black figures, three black figures in the third box and so on.

Alternatively, the pattern in the second box could shift such that the colour moves along one place in the series. Thus, the single black square would become a white square and the first white circle would become black.

“Complete the pattern” abstract reasoning test tips

Similar to the series abstract reasoning format, instead of having a line of 5 boxes the abstract reasoning format could be more elaborate.  You need to select which of the five answer options completes the 2 by 2 / 3 by 3 box.

It’s key not to panic. Whilst the question may look more complicated than the series row of boxes, you find the answer in the same way. The pattern will be both horizontal and vertical. This actually makes it easier to spot the similarities across and down the boxes. Once you have spotted the abstract similarities you are very close to knowing how the pattern differs going from one box to the next. Yes, exactly the same as in the simple series form of non-verbal reasoning question.

Abstract reasoning test practice

Abstract reasoning strategies

Questions become more difficult as you must spot two or three changes in any of the features shown. It can help, once you’ve worked out at least one of the feature changes, to check through the answer options to discount those that do not conform said feature changes.
Alongside SHL’s practise test pages these three sites cover most of the psychometric tests you are likely to find. You can ask in advance which test publisher’s test you will take.

The key is to always identify those patterns that differentiate Set A from Set B. You can find further UCAT abstract reasoning test practice tips here.

SHL abstract reasoning test

Whereas, SHL abstract reasoning tests ask you to look for the changing pattern(s) in the “pictures”. The easier questions typically at the start of the test, will involve one change in colour, position, size etc of the figures shown.

Questions become more difficult as you must spot two or three changes in any of the features shown. Once you know one of the feature changes, check each answer option to discount any in conflict with it.

Introduction to Abstract Reasoning tests

Abstract reasoning is the ability to perceive logical patterns and relationships and then to be able to extrapolate this information to new patterns/relationships. Being able to do this effectively is an important component of complex problem-solving.

The term general intelligence was conceptualized in the 1920’s by Charles Spearman. He believed that general intelligence was the most important estimate of someone’s overall intellectual ability. Spearman defined general intelligence as the innate ability to perceive relationships and to predict co-relationships. In other words, to understand how different concepts relate to each other; and to be able to assimilate new information into these concepts.

Abstract Reasoning Tests measure general intelligence by assessing the ability to identify the inherent patterns in a series of shapes/figures. The candidate needs to identify logical patterns and relationships in the sets of complex shapes and figures that are presented in each question block.

.

Strategies for Completing Abstract Reasoning Tests

Each of these question blocks needs to be approached in the same logical way. To answer the first question in a block of Abstract Reasoning questions you will need to differentiate between Set A and Set B. The steps for doing this are given below:

First Step – Identifying Set A’s Features

Review the six squares in Set A. Ask yourself what features the figures in Set A have in common. There are a number of different features that you need to look out for. The main ones are as follows:

 Number of abstract reasoning figures

  • How many figures are contained within each square?

Size of abstract reasoning figures

  • Is there one large shape shown in each square?
  • Are there two medium-sized shapes?
  • Are there a large number of small shapes?

Shape of abstract reasoning figures

  • Does the same shape feature consistently within a square?
  • Does the same shape feature consistently within a square?

Colour of abstract reasoning figures

  • Is a figure wholly black or white?
  • Is a figure partly black or white?

Position of abstract reasoning figures

  • Is there one central figure?
  • Are there two figures positioned in a row?
  • Is there a figure in each of the four corners of the square?

Second Step – Identifying Set A’s repeating pattern

  • Ask yourself what features are a repeating pattern across all six of the squares in Set A.

Third Step – Identifying Set B’s features

  • Ask yourself what features the figures in Set B have in common.

Fourth Step – Identifying Set B’s repeating pattern

  • Ask yourself what features are a repeating pattern across all six of the squares in Set B.

Fifth Step – Identifying the theme that Set A and Set B have in common

  • There will be one characteristic that links Set A and Set B.
  • You need to identify the theme that Set A and Set B have in common. This will link the repeating pattern that you have found for Set A with the repeating pattern that you have found for Set B.

Sixth Step

  • Not apply what you have learnt to Question 1. Do the figures in Question 1 have most in common with Set A, with Set B, or share characteristics of Sets A and B?

This sixth step is what you now need to apply to answer question 2 and the remaining questions in that block. Then on reaching the second block you need to go back to the First Step again in order to differentiate between Set A and Set B.

Top Ten Abstract Reasoning Test Tips (1-5)

This section is designed to highlight ten tips to enable you to perform at your best on the Abstract Reasoning. These Tips are presented in no particular order since each may be more or less relevant on a particular Abstract Reasoning question.

  1. Always follow the recommended step-by-step approach given previously.  This will save you time pondering and avoid getting stuck on a particular question. 
  2. It is very time efficient to adopt a structured approach to each question in terms of your strategy for answering and in terms of how much time you allocate to completing each question. If you have an alternative structured approach to the one given above then use this as your strategy.
  3. One type of misleading question that you may encounter is where there is the same type of shape appearing in several of Set A or Set B squares. For example, the crosses that appear in several of the Set A and B squares in the question block 15-21. These are deliberately used to distract you and to not contribute to the overall pattern that you are looking for.
  4. If you cannot allocate a set of figures to Set A and B do not spend too long trying to find why. Remember that answer option C is the third option and covers both components of Set A and Set B – even if you haven’t bottomed out what these actually are.
  5. You may find that even if you are unable to identify the underlying pattern in Set A and/or Set B you can intuitively see or feel that a question belongs in either Set A or Set B. In this case do not be afraid of giving that best estimate as your answer.

(6-10) Abstract Reasoning Test Tips 

  1. You will find some items much easier than others. This is why it’s important to get to the end of the Abstract Reasoning subtest before the allocated time. That way you can return to the more difficult items and at least have attempted answers to all the questions.
  2. If you have spent considerable time attempting to differentiate between the figures in Set A and Set B then try to apply the same explanations as have been demonstrated to you in this book. Maybe one of these, or something similar will be what differentiates Set A from Set B.
  3. One pitfall to avoid is spending too long on the first half of the subtest. Ask yourself the question when you are halfway through your allocated time, Have I finished half of the questions?  If the answer is yes then you are working at the right pace. If you have completed less than half you may like to speed up your working. Do not do this at the expense of accuracy.
  4. You may find that you can automatically run through the recommended sequence of stages once you are familiar with the Abstract Reasoning sub-test format of the CAT. Obviously if the answer “jumps out at you straight away” then you may well have detected the underlying pattern without having to spend much time thinking about it. The time saved will benefit you when you come to Abstract Reasoning questions that you find more difficult to detect the underlying pattern.
  5.  If after having completed the Abstract Reasoning subtest practice items you still have concerns about your ability to pass this CAT subtest then you may like to memorise each of these Top Ten Tips over the next few days.

Best Three Strategies for you to Remember

The best current strategy for you to adopt now is a three-fold one:

  1. Work through a number of examples and get a feeling for how comfortable you are doing this sub-test;
  2. Check your answers against those provided at the end of this Test Taker’s Guide; and then;
  3. Review those questions that you did not complete correctly. It is vital that for each of the questions that you answered incorrectly, you read the rationale and learn how this reasoning has been applied to this particular type of question. Do ensure that you spend sufficient time going over the reasoning provided.

Other Psychometric Test Practice

Try our abstract reasoning test practice

What are Abstract Reasoning Tests?

The aim is to test your thinking about realizing the rules, patterns for problem solving and decision making.

The test will show your ability to proceed with data and information, detect patterns and relationships between them, then offer solutions to problems at a level of abstract thinking.

Typically, companies asking candidates to do this test to look for the following skills in the candidates:

  • Be able to understand the meaning behind the information and data. For example, the Statue of Liberty in the United States is not simply a statue, but a symbol of freedom.
  • Be able to grasp abstract theory about a certain phenomenon. You can introduce the concept and overview of different data.
  • Identify relationships, connections between discrete ideas. For example, you can find patterns of customer behavior through changes over time.

Abstract Reasoning Test samples

Here are some typical images from an Abstract Reasoning Test.

(Image source: Aptitude-test)

Which is the next image?

Your task is to observe and analyze to identify a pattern to be able to select the next image.Subscribe to The Morning Email.Wake up to the day’s most important news.

There’s a limited time period. This requires you to analyze information quickly and accurately in a short time.

In addition, the difficulty will increase gradually through each question. This means you need to identify many more patterns and their complexity will increase.

Abstract reasoning test tips

Other types of abstract reasoning test

Reasoning: In addition to questions about how to identify the pattern over the image, you will encounter questions related to the diagram. There’s a a diagram to identify the rules. Then you apply the rules listed to apply to a different diagram to solve the problem. You would need analytical skills, critical thinking and the ability to relate to the symbols to find out the answer.

Given this flow diagram:

Identify what x equals here:

Answer: E

Explanation: When you look on the diagram, the black square turns into the white circle after going through the process in between. It means that there are two changing factors. They are shape and color. Therefore, in the answer, the black circle turns into the white square.

(Image source: LSE)

Diagramming Abstract Reasoning Test Practice

Given these commands:

And this sequence of diagrams and commands:

Which sequence is correct?

Answer: D

(Image source: LSE)

In this example, to be able to pick out the correct answer, you should be able to interpret the information and grasp the meaning of these commands. Then, based on that sense, you apply in order to find the most accurate diagram.

Extra Abstract Reasoning Test Tips

To be able to quickly identify the pattern, you need to compare each factor between images and information. Factors here include the size, location, color, angles, movement and you compare it with other factors to identify certain rules between them.

To avoid boredom, you should invite your friends to practise with you. You can participate in a competition to train your reflexes. This is actually an interesting test for you. You will become more passionate as you become better.

You can practise analyzing information by looking at the financial statements, statistical tables of human behavior on social networks. Then try to find the meaning through the raw data.

Moreover, to be able to finish a test in time, you need to focus on core aspects of a question. Distinguish between the important elements and those elements not relevant. If you caught a very hard sentence, you could skip to the next sentence and do it. For such difficult questions, you can observe the answers to find the rule.

Abstract reasoning test tips

bstract reasoning tests, logical reasoning tests or diagrammatic reasoning tests) try to assess your propensity to detect abstract patterns. Normally you will see an existing sequence of squares (normally 3-5) which contain various shapes. There will be some sort of pattern occurring inside the sequence of squares. Your job is to figure out logically what that pattern is and then choose what the next square will be in the sequence. You’re normally given 4 options to choose from. Of the three main types of psychometric tests, most people find these the hardest, especially initially. A lot of people look at them and their eyes glaze over, similar to the first time you saw a page of calculus, or a foreign language. But don’t panic! With practice, you will come to learn that there are many patterns that will repeat themselves. For example, it’s extremely common for a particular shape inside the square to be rotating in each step, by a certain number of degrees. Other common patterns are rotation of the whole square, replacement of shapes and flipping of shapes. The more you practice inductive reasoning tests, the easier they will become.

Click Practice Now above to start learning right now.

You can also subscribe to our YouTube channel which has lots of helpful videos covering all the tricks and traps that the test providers throw at you.

Which companies use abstract reasoning tests?

Inductive reasoning tests are very commonly used during graduate and intern recruitment. For example, by:

  • Morgan Stanley, RBS, RBC and JPMorgan (merchant banking and investment banksg too).
  • Legal firms.
  • McKinsey, BCG and Bain (management consultancy).
  • Top engineering recruiters.
  • PwC, KPMG, EY and Deloitte (as the top accountancy firms).
  • Rio Tinto and BHP (mining).

In other words, abstract reasoning tests are most common amongst the top paying and most selective graduate employers.

This is because abstract reasoning tests are introduced into a graduate assessment process as the ‘third cog’. So, as a further sift of very high potential graduates – after the more traditional graduate verbal reasoning test sift and graduate numerical reasoning test sift.

When are abstract reasoning tests used?

Normally, invitations to inductive reasoning tests are distributed early on in the recruitment process. Similar to numerical and verbal reasoning, they are used as a relatively cheap and quick screening mechanism to cull at least around 80% of applicants. This becomes essential for the big banks and other very popular companies, who will have many 1000s of applicants for only a handful of jobs. Be aware, however, that some companies mix it up a bit and choose to use them later on in the process. If they do elect to do this, it’s normally under proper test conditions, supervised, in their offices. This means that you must be able to do well in the test yourself. Some people think that they can get away with getting their mates to do the test for them if it’s an online one at home. Beware, companies do often re-test you later on in the process, again under supervised conditions in their office.

How does practice help?

That’s a good question. Well, we believe that the more you practice, then

  • The more the most common abstract reasonign test question patterns will become easier to identify.
  • In fact, you will get faster and faster at cycling through all the possible options of abstract reasoning test question patterns. And of course. The quicker you can identify these patterns, the more likely you are to be able to pass your abstract reasoning test.
  • You will know more about what to expect in your own abstract reasoning test. The knock-on effect being that hopefully this knowledge will give you more confidence. And hence improve your abstract reasoning test performance.
  • Primarily this will be because your average abstract reasoning test answer rate will be much faster.

Which are the most common abstract reasoning test question?

Yes, there are indeed a few commonly used patterns which abstract reasoning test developers seem to like to use again and again. In our opinion these are shape…

  • Rotations by either 90 degrees or a 180 degrees.
  • Reflections as if there was a mirror placed between the two adjacent shapes (in a sequence or bigger figure)
  • Positions being swapped around. For example around the four corners of their outer square figure.

We are assessment specialists in both work and education settings. For more insights into meaningful assessments contact Rob Williams Assessment for a comprehensive appraisal.

Psychometric Test Design. People having colour fight.

SPECIALISMS

Rob Williams Assessment Ltd specialises in custom psychometric test design services for SME’s and scale-ups.

Psychometric test design specialists

We are bespoke psychometric test specialists in both work and education settings. For more insights into meaningful assessments contact Rob Williams Assessment for a comprehensive appraisal.

Our Practice Aptitude Test Books (listings on Amazon)

  • FREE Brilliant Passing Verbal Reasoning Tests ebook

  • Passing Numerical Reasoning Tests book

We’ve helped SHL, SOVA and CAPP with numerous bespoke psychometric design projects; designed video assessments (HireVue, Arctic Shores); and been commissioned by leading psychometric consultancies, such as TPI and We are Amberjack.

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Many of the UK’s and US’s leading test publishers have used Rob Williams Assessment’s to calculate and prove the reliability of their Personality Test designs and Situational Judgement test designs.

In addition to situational judgement test design, we also specialise in Assessment design and Aptitude test design.

Personality Test Design

Psychological and personality tests analyze your personal qualities, strengths and weaknesses. The answers you provide to these types of questions can help you assess your ideal working style.

Based on your personality, preferences and patterns, you’ll discover the types of professions you’re best suited for. You will find plenty of aptitude test practice and aptitude test tips on this website.

– – – Career guidance service – – –

Aptitude Test Design

Aptitude tests give one a sense of how good of a fit you are to perform certain tasks – or how likely you are to learn a skill. You will find plenty of aptitude test practice and aptitude test tips on this website.

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For training consultancies, Rob Williams Assessment Ltd has built coaching and employability profiling tools.

With recruitment agencies we’ve designed culture and role fit personality-based assessments to improve the efficiency of matching clients to the best-fitting jobs.

Our psychometric test design solutions

  • Our consultancy work focuses on aptitude test practice and bespoke psychometric test design.
  • We believe in the benefits of practice and ensuring fairness in testing. We, therefore, offer some practice aptitude tests and some practice psychometric tests. The intention is to promote as ‘level a playing-field’ as possible.

Psychometric Test Design. Man at desk working at laptop, picture taken from the top

Our SJT designs

As psychometric tests have become more commonplace, the bigger users have commissioned their own bespoke situational judgement tests.

Rob Williams Assessment has worked on several such projects for High Street banks and for the European Union. Another recent innovation of test developers has been online adaptive tests. With these tests, if you are doing well, you will find that the questions get progressively harder.

The innovative design of shorter and more efficient tests was driven by an increasingly aware of the immediacy of the Internet and our increasing use of emails and social media, in short, sharp bursts.

This discourages test takers from spending 30-40 minutes online doing the same questionnaire. It’s better for everyone to keep test takers engaged when being tested – not bored!

Knowledge-based situational judgement test design

Some or all of the scenarios presented in an SJT can test specific job knowledge. For example, a retail marketing SJT may ask questions about the 3Ps (price, position, promotion) of product marketing. Alternatively, both an SJT measuring generic decision-making skills may be used alongside a knowledge-based test.

Our video-based situational judgment test designs

Simulated situational judgement tests are increasingly common as recruitment sifts. Adding 2D or 3D workplace scenario graphics brings the situational judgment test scenarios to life. This can only promote the company brand and make employers using simulated situational judgment tests more desirable employers.

psychometric test design

UK and US psychometric test publishers have produced both video-based and animated SJT scenarios. Animated SJTs are easier – and therefore cheaper – for global companies to develop.

Our consultancy work focuses on aptitude test practice and bespoke psychometric test design. We believe in the benefits of practice and ensuring fairness in testing. We, therefore, offer some practice aptitude tests and some practice psychometric tests. The intention is to promote as ‘level a playing-field’ as possible.

Values based recruitment

Example values-based recruitment Question – Describe an example of when you have made a decision which had a positive effect on a customer?
Probes: What actions did you take? Who was involved? What was the outcome of your actions?

Positive behavioural indicators

  • Uses their initiative.
  • Takes personal responsibility.
  • Describes the example’s context, their actions and the outcome(s).

Negative behavioural indicators

  • Applies limited effort.
  • Only describes own actions.
  • Omits  the outcome.
  • Doesn’t describe their individual contribution.

We always follow BPS Standards in Psychometric Test Design

To be psychometrically sound a test must be:

  • Objective – the results obtained are not influenced by the administrator’s personal characteristics or irrelevant factors such as the colour of a test taker’s socks.
  • Standardised – the test is administered and scored according to standard procedures and people’s scores are compared to known standards.
  • Reliable – the test measures in a consistent way. The potential error is small and is quantifiable.
  • Valid. Our psychometric test design measures the characteristic(s) that it set(s) out to measure. So, if we design a sift psychometric test to select a job applicant should predict job performance. Whereas, if we design a psychometric test of verbal ability then it will predict verbal reasoning abilities.
  • Discriminating. Any of our bespoke psychometric tests designs should show clear differences between individuals on the behaviour being tested. But should not be discriminatory. In other words our psychometric test design does not unfairly discriminate against a minority group.

Our bespoke psychometric test designs

Example Psychometric Test Projects 

Rob Williams has over twenty years of experience of bespoke psychometric test design. Plus ten years prior to this spent working for several of the UK’s leading test publishers. These include IBM, OPP, SHL and HireVue.

British Airways blended assessment project:

  • Firstly our BA Situational judgment test design;
  • Secondly,  our Numerical reasoning test design;
  • Thirdly our Verbal reasoning test design
  • Finally our Personality questionnaire design.

BUPA SJT Design

  • Best practice was followed throughout the design process in SJT design.
  • An SJT was produced which successfully incorporated a range of care home-specific scenarios.
  • The most suitable set of scenarios could be hand-picked at the SME panel meeting, as well as gaining buy-in and discussing implementation.
  • Providing some scenarios for telephone interview sifts.
  • Setting a suitable cut-off and validating the tool.

EPSO Test Design

  • Development of project management test.
  • Design of IT skills-based aptitude tests.

Psychometric test design

Our Work Styles assessment designs

We will work with you to design the most suitable work styles tool to suit your needs. Our Bespoke Personality Questionnaire design process aims to:

  • Firstly, include key role dimensions.
  • Secondly, reflect the personality, attitudinal and motivational aspects of the role-specific dimensions.
  • Thirdly, have face valid questions.
  • Also, to be capable of completion in 20 minutes approx.
  • And to adopt a single-stimulus question format (Likert scale)
  • Plus, adopting a normative format of scoring utilising a sten look-up table (for each personality scale)
  • And finally, using a Social Desirability scale to deal with the issue of faking or extreme scoring patterns

Psychometric test design

Recent situational judgement test trends

Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have also become prevalent in graduate recruitment. These tests present scenarios to applicants and ask them to select the best and the worst thing to do next. SJT’s are very popular in the United States due to their excellent record of fairness across different ethnic groups.

Recent personality test trends

Candidates may also have to take a personality test as part of the recruitment process. There is a vast array of personality tests, which pose questions about a candidate’s behaviour and personal preferences. A typical question may ask whether you prefer attending parties or staying home with a good book. These personality tests help employers to determine whether a candidate has the right profile for the role.

How companies use aptitude tests

Aptitude tests are used by many companies as a standard part of the recruitment process. If you’re currently aplying for jobs, you’re likely to face one or more psychometric tests, measuring everything from verbal reasoning and numeracy to emotional intelligence. I would say that 90 per cent of big companies use skills and/or aptitude tests, though the kind used will depends on the role and industry you’re aplying for,’ says Rob Williams.

How you perform matters. ‘Even if you wow a potential employer with a great first or second interview, the results can make or break your chances of getting hired,’ says Rob. Research backs up the claim. Nearly 90 percent of companies said they would reject candidates if the test showed them to be deficient in basic skills, according to a survey by the American Management Association.

What are the most commonly used aptitude tests? The most commonly used aptitude tests measure numerical, verbal and logical reasoning,

Graduate Aptitude test designs

  • Our first point is that a well-designed selection procedure focuses on predicting a graduate’s competence within a particular work context.
  • Secondly, that psychometric assessments only form one part of the selection procedure.
  • Our third point is that personality assessments can give an indication of how well an individual applicant will fit into the existing workplace or team.
  • Finally, psychometric assessments can assess which applicants are most suited to the demands of the vacant job in terms of both ability and personality factors.

Our assessment designs – graduate psychometric test design example

Graduate recruiters who want to minimise recruitment costs see online ability tests as an efficient and effective means of sifting the initial applicant pool.

A bespoke verbal reasoning test design and numerical reasoning test design offer a reliable and standardised solution. This should ensure that an optimal number of good candidates are seen by the business at the much more expensive ‘face-to-face’ stage.

Using standardised tests to improve your diversity of hires

Using standardised tests in the recruitment process helps to ensure that applicants from different countries and from different ethnic groups are treated fairly.

Aptitude test design – Employability example

All of our psychometric test practice resources are free. So, we hope you enjoy using them!   In our opinion, there is plenty of the right type of aptitude test practice, aptitude test tips and test-taking strategies.

We certainly hope you get maximum value from our free psychometric test practice resources!  Psychometric test practise works best when it’s specific to the test type and the level of difficulty of the psychometric test you will be taking.

Best practice in assessment design

  • Our first point is that a well-designed selection procedure focuses on predicting a graduate’s competence within a particular work context.
  • Secondly, that psychometric assessments only form one part of the selection procedure.
  • Our third point is that personality assessments can give an indication of how well an individual applicant will fit into the existing workplace or team.
  • Finally, psychometric assessments can assess which applicants are most suited to the demands of the vacant job in terms of both ability and personality factors.

Best practice uses of aptitude test data

  • Firstly, it’s fundamental to the use of any psychometric test is that users are aware of a test’s effectiveness and its known limitations.  This information is calculable through knowledge of a measure’s reliability and validity.
  • Secondly, importance is attached to test results and decisions are made using test data.
  • Thirdly, you must be sure that the tests you are using have sound credentials and have been properly developed.
  •  

Bespoke psychometric test design 

 

Psychometric test design pillars

An IQ test compares each respondent’s IQ score with a group of previous test-takers. There needs to be a standardization phase when developing any aptitude test.

This standardization sample provides the norm group against which the individual scores of all later psychometric test respondents are compared. Otherwise, an ‘IQ score’ would be meaningless!

The second psychometric test property is…

Reliability

There are two key types of psychometric reliability. In each case, ‘psychometric test reliability’ means that if I take the same test next week, my results will be similar.

Internal Reliability, or Internal Consistency

This is the first type of psychometric test design reliability.

Whether all the test items measure the same concept. It can be assessed in two ways. The first method is known as the split-half reliabilitywhich require correlating the score based on half of the test items with the score based on the other half (e.g., scores on odd and even items).

An alternative method is item-total reliabilitywhich requires correlating each item score with the total score of the rest of the items.

Cronbach alpha then summarises all the psychometric test reliability correlations into one figure. A test should have an alpha of at least a = .80.

Our Bespoke psychometric test designs

Secondly, Test-retest Reliability relates to psychometric score consistency over time. In other words, how reliably a psychometric test measures. A time gap of at least two weeks between the two measurements is key. Since some psychological characteristics change considerably over time.

Then, the test re-test reliability is assessed by correlating the tests scores measured first time with the test scores measured the second time. Ability tests are expected to have a reliability of at least r = .75, yet personality tests might have somewhat lower reliability.

Validity

Psychometric test design validity means the test measures what it says it measures. MindX knows which personality traits are measured because we have compared our results to well-established personality tests. HireVue validates its video assessments using high performer data and job analysis results.

Aptitude Test Design Reliability – is it a reliable measure?

  • Most commonly the internal consistency index coefficient alpha or its dichotomous formulation, KR-20.
  • Under most conditions, these range from 0.0 to 1.0.
  • 1.0 is a perfectly reliable measurement.
  • Although, a reliable test may still not be a valid

Aptitude Test Design Validity – Secondly, is the test valid?

A measure of what it ‘says on the tin’? In our opinion, both the initial content validation and later criterion validation analysis are vital for any bespoke psychometric test.

Final Validity Recommendations

We recommend collecting additional recruitment data over time so that additional validation studies can be conducted. Such as assessment centre data.

There are many other types of psychometric test validation evidence, and one-off studies investigating a psychometric test’s criterion validity are common.

Assessment Reliability

The reliability of any exercise depends upon many factors:

  • Quality of the competency framework.
  • Use of experienced and well-briefed / well-trained assessors.

Biodata approach to psychometric test design

  • Such biodata test designs were popular in the 1970’s/80’s in the UK., but fell out of fashion due to concerns about face validity.
  • Face validity is how job-relevant a test’s questions appear to be.
  • Assessing this is difficult because of the way that the biodata approach to psychometric tezst design fits questions to job performance.

Biodata example questions

  • Asking about previous working and life history facts.
  • Biodata questions can include personal attitudes, values, beliefs.
  • There are therefore both autographical and biographical perspectives.
  • For example, how effective previous working relationships were with managers and/or colleagues.

psychometric test design

Personality Values Test Design

    •  

We also design values based  assessments. Values impact goal content whereas personality traits impact the efforts that individuals make towards their goals.

Ability Tests Introduction

  • Often employers are interested in your aptitude or potential to do a task.
  • In this case, they may use assessment methods that aim to simulate aspects of that task.

Personality Questionnaire Introduction

  • These measure behavioural preferences of how you prefer to work.
  • There’s no right or wrong answer.
  • That said, of course, certain behaviours are more suited to particular jobs.

Situational Judgement Test Introduction

  • These psychometric tests assess your ability to choose the most appropriate action in workplace situations.
  • Respondents read a scenario / view an animation;
  • Then select the Best and Worst responses to that aspecific work situation.

But what does my psychometric score mean ?

If used as a sift at an early stage of the recruitment process then there will be a specific mark that you have to pass in order to proceed further with your application.

When used as part of an assessment centre, a psychometric test is unlikely to be used a sift that excludes a % of applicants. In other words, your test score will be used to provide additional information but would not be the only reason why you succeed or fail at this particular stage.

Top 70 psychometric consultancies

–  – in alphabetical order  – –

  1. ACER
  2. Alva
  3. AON
  4. Assess First
  5. Assessio
  6. Assessments 24×7
  7. Berke
  8. Biddle
  9. Biodata Online
  10. Birkman
  11. Caliper (PSI)
  12. CCI
  13. CCM
  14. Central Test
  15. Criteria Corp
  16. Cubics
  17. Cut-e HR Assessments
  18. DeGarmo
  19. Easi-Consult
  20. e-Skill
  21. Fifth Theory
  22. FPSI
  23. Genos
  24. Get Feedback
  25. GL Assessment
  26. gNeil
  27. Harver
  28. HFI
  29. Hogan
  30. Hogrefe
  31. Holst
  32. HR Avatar
  33. Hudson
  34. IntegriView
  35. IO solutions
  36. IPAT
  37. Isograd
  38. Kattis
  39. Kingwood
  40. Knight chapman
  41. Korn Ferry/TalentQ
  42. Master Intl
  43. McQuaig
  44. MEttl
  45. Mindmill
  46. ModernHire
  47. My Future Choice
  48. My Skills Profile
  49. OnPoint
  50. OPP/Myers Briggs
  51. Outmatch
  52. Pan
  53. Pearson
  54. PELLETB
  55. Pfaff
  56. Predictive Index
  57. PROPHET
  58. PSI
  59. PsyCorp
  60. Psycruit
  61. Psymetrics
  62. Pymetrics
  63. Quest
  64. Ramsay
  65. ReviewNet
  66. Revellian
  67. Saville Assessment
  68. Select
  69. SHL
  70. SOVA

Admissions tests practice

  1. Our aptitude test design projects

Our other psychometric test design specialities

We are assessment specialists in both work and education settings. For more insights into meaningful assessments contact Rob Williams Assessment for a comprehensive appraisal.

 

What is involved in clerical aptitude test, spelling, grammar and accuracy on paper.

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